For example, both men and women may be held to a dress code. Unequal pay. Not only that, but these biases are incredibly prevalent and have profound negative effects on people’s lives and careers. Often you associate foods with being “good” or “bad.” Kale salad, good. “Lookism in Hiring Decisions: How Federal Law should be Amended to Prevent Appearance Discrimination in the Workplace.”, (41) Cavico, Frank J, Muffler, Stephen C, Mujtaba, Bahaudin G. “Appearance Discrimination, "Lookism" And "Lookphobia" In The Workplace.”, (42) Bartlett, Katharine T. “Only Girls Wear Barrettes: Dress and Appearance Standards, Community Norms, and Workplace Equality.”, (43) Carels, Robert A., Musher-Eizenman, Dara R. “Individual differences and weight bias: Do people with an anti-fat bias have a pro-thin bias?”, (44) Lelwica, Michelle M. “The Religion of Thinness: Satisfying the Spiritual Hungers Behind Women’s Obsession with Food and Weight”, our internal Diversity & Inclusivity workshops, Roehling, Mark V, et al. Retired Women Should Get More Pension Than Retired Men, White People Have Vital Role To Play in Reparations Talk. One of the most common yet unprotected and under-discussed forms of bias that can effect potential and current employees is a person’s weight, appearance, and “attractiveness.”. See our previous posts on lookism, appearance or beauty bias, and weight and height discrimination: October 16, 2013; July 9, 2012; February 11, 2011). I am queer, White, and thin. “How are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity?”, Lee, Jennifer A, Pause, Cat J. Clearly, weight and appearance discrimination exist in the workplace. Obesity bias seems to be the most frequently observed manifestation of this. Does your company have a policy prohibiting weight and appearance discrimination? Think for a moment about what you consider “attractive.”. A massive outlet for appearance-based discrimination exists within the appearance guidelines that many businesses adhere to. “The Relationship between Body Weight and Perceived Weight-Related Employment Discrimination: The Role of Sex and Race.”, Flint, Stuart W, et al. The tech industry is a direct participant in diet culture. The prevalence and level of effect of these biases are especially disconcerting because most of the assumptions that diet culture and our popular perceptions of health are built upon are false. in food preparation or handling) and as such an employer may request them to be removed or covered. “Understanding self-directed stigma: Development of the weight bias Internalization scale.”, (5) Puhl RM, Schwartz M, Brownell KD. Even those outside of dominant groups internalize these standards; a study of US college students, including individuals from many races, discovered that all participants rated Whites as the “most attractive” group. It also associates food with morality by assigning “goodness” to certain lifestyles and choices. (Again, “attractiveness” accords culturally with the image of dominant social classes.) For example, a study revealed that women’s magazines contained 10.5 times as many diet promotions as men’s magazines (28). According to a Psychology Today article entitled "Lookism at Work," preventing lookism can be difficult.For instance, factors such as age and gender are "objectively verifiable," whereas attractiveness is mostly subjective. It has been found that the ge… 5 0 obj One Day in the life of women - by Tammy Bronfen, Why I Took My Kids to a White Supremacy Counter-Protest, Elephant in the room- story of a colored woman navigating in corporate world. appearance discrimination primarily towards women who are judged based upon their respective physical appearance, especially in the workforce. “What’s Wrong With the ‘War on Obesity?’ A Narrative Review of the Weight-Centered Health Paradigm and Development of the 3C Framework to Build Critical Competency for a Paradigm Shift.”, Hunger, Jeffrey M, et al. “Association between Weight Bias Internalization and Metabolic Syndrome among Treatment‐Seeking Individuals with Obesity.”, Durso LE, Latner JD. Disclaimer: In this post, I’ll be using the term “fat.” Fat is a neutral descriptor, similar to tall or short; it’s the stigma we attach to the word that is harmful. Asian American women on average make 87 cents, Native American women make 57 cents while Latina women have the lowest pay – 54 cents. We adopt a variety of products and beliefs for the sake of efficiency and functionality, some of which promote unhealthy behaviors. Fed by diet culture, weight and appearance discrimination targets bodies that fall outside of “the norm”, which I will define below. It is just as it sounds – workplace bias based upon appearance. Why? Next, we present an overview on ethical aspects on lookism and the workplace. In pursuing that agenda, an obvious place to start is to prohibit discrimination based on appearance. The Ford-Kavanaugh Case is triggering profound emotion. Here’s the funny thing about appearance discrimination in the American workplace: in many instances, it’s explicit, and in a majority of those cases, entirely legal. In the workplace, fat women are more adversely impacted by weight discrimination than men. We have written a lot about what some call “beauty bias” – workplace bias based upon appearance. ✌️ Versett is a product design and engineering studio. Another found that 40 percent of women showed “anorexic-like” behavior; nearly 50 percent engaged in bingeing and purging. I don’t pretend to speak to the experiences of fat individuals but instead hope to share academic and community knowledge and start a conversation. dresses, skirts, heels, jewelry). They face many of the same appearance biases as their male peers, but to a more extreme degree and with less clarity. However, potential legal liability for appearance discrimination can arise when a physical trait is a mutable or immutable characteristic of a protected class. If a person does not conform to gender norms from the start, or may not appear to a colleague as in line with the gender they identify with, then they are far more likely to suffer from the negative consequences associated with these normative expectations. The Importance Of Appearance Discrimination In The Workplace 1175 Words | 5 Pages. “Obesity, Stigma, and Civilized Oppression.”. Appearance discrimination does skew towards women. Because the issue of pay equity … However, not every form of potential discrimination is. “Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media.”, X, Guo. We will discuss this in next week’s post. Identify where biases are likely to affect your organisation. There is such a thing as appearance discrimination in this world. Dress code for men: In corporate structure: Despite the fact that men have lesser options when it … Society years ago, may have sugar coated the … “Body Mass Index and Mortality: a Meta-Analysis Based on Person-Level Data from Twenty-Six Observational Studies.”, (34) Mays, Vickie M., Cochran, Susan D., Barnes, Namdi W. “Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans.”, (35) Woolf, Steven H, et al. Physical appearance isn’t covered in the Equality Act of 2010. In appearance-based discrimination cases, then, the plaintiff often faces an uphill battle in establishing his or her discrimination claim on the basis of appearance. These individuals become the template for what is attractive in our society (27). & Appearance Discrimination in Employment Employment discrimination legislation has evolved to include race, disabilities, sexual harassment of either gender, and age. Refined sugar, bad. “Moralities in Food and Health Research.”, (14) O’Hara, Lily, Taylor, Jane. Discrimination in the workplace covers any work related issues, and it is important for employers to take care that the company handbook, policies, and practices are uniform, regardless of employee race, gender, ethnicity, age, religion, or disability. Common manifestations of appearance-based discrimination may include bias against obese, oddly-dressed, or tattooed candidates, or any people who don’t fit … The problem is that there’s so much subjectivity to what is considered as attractive. “What’s Wrong With the ‘War on Obesity?’ A Narrative Review of the Weight-Centered Health Paradigm and Development of the 3C Framework to Build Critical Competency for a Paradigm Shift.”, (15) Hunger, Jeffrey M, et al. @��"�̸1f ���&��! Appearance can influence people and potentially impact how a business performs. “Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift.”, (30) X, Guo. That’s a large part of what diet culture entails; it convinces us our bodies should be smaller. “Stigma in Practice: Barriers to Health for Fat Women.”, Phelan, Julie E., Moss-Racusin, Corinne A. , Rudman, Laurie A. Our best workplace discrimination lawyers in California explain that while discriminating against employees based their appearance is unfair and can lead to similar negative consequences for the worker who is being discriminated as the illegal types of discrimination (emotional distress, low self-esteem, hostile work environment, etc. The effects of the beauty bias start working even before the employee does: the rise of the video or photo resume give recruiters a perception that’s worth a thousand resume words; and is a subconscious filter that can make or break a candidate’s chances. A variety of well-established laws protect Americans from unfairness in the workplace because of race, religion, gender and other reasons, but less clear is the issue of appearance-based discrimination. Common manifestations of appearance-based discrimination may include bias against obese, oddly-dressed, or tattooed employees, or any individuals who … Why? Studies show that managing appearance is a fine line for professional women to walk: there's both a bonus and a penalty to being attractive in the workplace. By James B. Taylor Put simply, “appearance discrimination” means discrimination based on an individual’s physical appearance. “Association between Weight Bias Internalization and Metabolic Syndrome among Treatment‐Seeking Individuals with Obesity.”, (4) Durso LE, Latner JD. For example, hair-based discrimination may occur against black people based on their natural hairstyles, which may include cornrows, dreadlocks and Afro hairstyles. However, certain traditions in mandating workplace attire unknowingly perpetuate discrimination. Fat individuals have reclaimed the word, similar to how LGBTQIA+ individuals have reclaimed the word “queer.” While fat is something people should be able to choose to identify as, rather than be labelled as, for the purpose of this discussion I use the term generally to refer to people in the “overweight,” “obese,” and “very obese” BMI bands. “The Relationship between Body Weight and Perceived Weight-Related Employment Discrimination: The Role of Sex and Race.”, (2) Flint, Stuart W, et al. So it is necessary for us to explore issues like size and appearance biases. We live in a world obsessed with “diet culture.” When most people hear the word “diet” they think of weight loss. This type of discrimination warrants discussion in the same way the tech industry now discusses other forms of workplace discrimination. ;��p.�/�騜�' ��Nik3��)r��֓�-����>lZ�[��E|b3UcF��ZD~l{@F�F�Ñ�Y�=��Yc)c��C91����hSb*��4��18�x��pt6@�� �ҥ 1"7:N����I:i���XTW`�A:/g@2Tk��̇�l�/�ʭ՗���TU-������2��mFY�ھ1)o+g�J~(�n*f��*����P~��M�-��ũ�L��]f���y�3{�@rQ;��2�Ҡ#�����0-�1�;�s��T|'c/��CT���K ��觥��"~�����C������R�?�Q7�������� �[6/0�Q�b �W���:44�-��L-_�YQ�U�y��=���d?��B�L� 8`zD��۾ܞ��挣�#���禇�-ג����9Bo�~B�3>z�. “Obesity Discrimination in the Recruitment Process: ‘You’re Not Hired!’”, Pearl, Rebecca L, et al. %�쏢 Society teaches us to associate normative attractiveness — which includes weight but also many other factors such as complexion, features, and attire — with happiness and success. “How are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity?”, (36) Lee, Jennifer A, Pause, Cat J. Unfair or not, how you present yourself affects how others perceive your intelligence, education and capabilities. “Body Mass Index and Mortality: a Meta-Analysis Based on Person-Level Data from Twenty-Six Observational Studies.”, Mays, Vickie M., Cochran, Susan D., Barnes, Namdi W. “Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans.”, Woolf, Steven H, et al. "Eliminating beauty bias in its' entirety," he says, "is a difficult task, but admitting its' existence and learning to address the issues head-on can improve workplace … According to the United States’ National Women’s Law Center, white women make 79 cents for every dollar made by a man, while black women make only 63 cents. Further, there has been a steadily-growing social acceptance of … “Ways of coping with obesity stigma: Review and conceptual Analysis.”, (11) John M. Kang, “Deconstructing the Ideology of White Aesthetics”, (12) Askegaard, Søren. “Moralities in Food and Health Research.”, O’Hara, Lily, Taylor, Jane. “Prejudice against fat people: Ideology and self-interest.”, Klesges RC, Klem ML, Hansoon CL, Eck LH, Ernst J, et al. Exploring the Gendered Nature of Weight Bias.”, Cossrow, N. H., Jeffrey, R. W., & McGuire, M. T. “Understanding Weight stigmatization: A focus group study.”, Hebl, M. R., Mannix, L. M. “The weight of obesity in evaluating others: A mere proximity effect.”, Roehling, M. V. “Weight-based discrimination in employment: Psychological and legal aspects.”, Wade, T. J., DiMaria, C. “Weight halo effects: Individual differences in perceived life success as a function of women’s race and weight.”, Drogosz, Lisa M., Levy, Paul E. “Another Look at the Effects of Appearance, Gender, and Job Type on Performance-Based Decisions.”, Riniolo, Todd C. et al., “Hot or Not: Do Professors Perceived as Physically Attractive Receive Higher Student Evaluations?”, Cash, Thomas F., Kilcullen, Robert N. , “The Aye of the Beholder: Susceptibility to Sexism and Beautyism in the Evaluation of Managerial Applicants.”, Alan Feingold, “Good-Looking People Are Not What We Think.”, Toledano, Enbar, et al. Beauty Bias; Creating a perception of a person looking at their personality is what defines beauty bias. If you like this post, you’d love working with us. What is workplace discrimination, and what constitutes discrimination against employees or job applicants? Ice cream, bad. “The effects of applicant’s health status and qualifications on simulated hiring decisions.”, Teachman BA, Brownell KD. Despite popular belief, evidence shows most people in a given culture have largely similar definitions of “attractiveness.” This is because, to a large extent, what is considered “attractive” is determined by the dominant group in a society (11). Maintaining certain standards of appearance in the workplace is a necessity in the business world. Have you experienced weight or appearance discrimination? They are less likely to be hired or considered for leadership positions (2) and tend to be offered fewer promotion opportunities and desirable job assignments (37, 43). But beyond that dress code women are often implicitly expected to wear makeup and more feminine clothing (e.g. Women have been historically receiving only a portion of what men earn working the same job. The list includes several that show a bias when evaluating the value of women in the workplace including: Women are more likely to get lower initial offers Organic, good. “Weighed down by Stigma: How Weight-Based Social Identity Threat Contributes to Weight Gain and Poor Health.”, (16) Fikkan, Janna L, Rothblum, Esther D . Because these expectations are not explicit, it is hard to control them with policy changes, such as eliminating that dress code. We’d love to hear from you on Twitter, or you can email us. We all bring unconscious biases into the workplace. “Prejudice against fat people: Ideology and self-interest.”, (8) Klesges RC, Klem ML, Hansoon CL, Eck LH, Ernst J, et al. Not only is weight and appearance discrimination legal, but in many ways it is socially acceptable (39). Women in particular are disproportionately affected by this ideal and face an inordinate amount of pressure to be thin (44). The Eye of the Beholder: Appearance Discrimination in the Workplace Masters Thesis In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Organizational Management Program by Nicholas C. Zakas Heidi Tarr Henson, Ed.D, Research Advisor May 11, 2005 A study of the relationships of gender and attractiveness biases to hiring decisions speculated that appearance bias may keep some women out of traditionally male jobs. <> Most of the forms of bias we have discussed to date are covered under equal opportunity laws. Take a moment to consider how these biases affects not only women, but trans and non-binary individuals as well. The same way we all internalize racism, classism, ableism, heteronormativity, and ageism, we also internalize diet culture (4, 5). They are more likely to be hired, better placed, compensated (23, 25) and evaluated (24), and be selected for management training and promotions then less “attractive” peers (38, 40, 41, 42, 43). Fatness is associated with up to a 17.51 percent wage decease; that is roughly equivalent to the wage differential for 2 years of education or 3 years of prior work experience (16). In other words, a woman who dresses in a way that signals affluence but doesn’t wear makeup may still be seen as less competent at her job. On top of countless photoshopped images, we are bombarded with thousands of products to help fix our “imperfections,” reinforcing this dominant normative standard of beauty (28). “Implicit anti-fat bias among health professionals: Is anyone immune?”, Puhl, R., Brownell, K. D. (2003). Employment discrimination happens when an employee or job candidate is treated unfavorably because of age, disability, genetic information, … This one is obvious, but it's a challenge to solve. As such, this article discusses issues related to … See where you’d fit in at https://versett.com/, (1) Roehling, Mark V, et al. The Fair Work Act 2009 does not protect employees from discrimination based on physical appearance. (44) By comparison, other studies indicate that men are only one-fourth as likely to suffer from an eating disorder and half as likely to show “anorexic-like” behavior as women. This clearly points to an inequity in the way we treat weight in men and women. Fat female job applicants are assessed more negatively in terms of reliability, dependability, honesty, ability to inspire, among other factors, than their peers (16). In this post, I will discuss the ways that these forms of discrimination currently effect individuals in the workforce. stream In this discussion we dress and how it relates to focus on appearance. %PDF-1.4 (1) Businesses that deal directly with customers, from a Hooters restaurant to fashion boutique, stock their employee ranks with beautiful people and defend it as an integral part of their brand. How Can We Stop the Beauty Bias in the Workplace? “Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media.”, (29) Bacon, Linda, and Lucy Aphramor. Some studies have shown that up to 20 percent of women suffer from an eating disorder. As a result, while both men and women are more likely to be hired if they wear more apparently expensive clothes and conform to their gender norms, it can be more difficult for women to meet these norms (27). In the US and Canada, dominant groups include White, wealthy, educated, cisgender, heterosexual, non-disabled, and thin people. Appearance discrimination can be described as a lack of what society believes is beauty. “The effects of applicant’s health status and qualifications on simulated hiring decisions.”, (9) Teachman BA, Brownell KD. Appearance discrimination also impacts the workplace when it overlaps and reinforces the stereotypes associated with other forms of discrimination such as sexism and racism. Blind hiring could be the way forward. These deeply subconscious attitudes span race, gender, appearance, age, wealth and much more. “Healthy Eating Index and Obesity.”, (31) Corrada, M M. “Association of Body Mass Index and Weight Change with All-Cause Mortality in the Elderly.”, (32) Drenowatz, C. “Differences in Correlates of Energy Balance in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.”, (33) McGee DL. “Competent Yet Out in the Cold: Shifting Criteria for Hiring Reflect Backlash Toward Agentic Women.”, (39) Rogge, M. M., Greenwald, M., Golden, A. Biases tend to have a big say in who gets … “Weighed down by Stigma: How Weight-Based Social Identity Threat Contributes to Weight Gain and Poor Health.”, Fikkan, Janna L, Rothblum, Esther D . “Is Fat a Feminist Issue? This is the first post in a series of three I have planned for the coming weeks discussing these issues. Piercings and tattoos may also present a health and safety issue in the workplace (e.g. Between movies, tv, ads, publications, and social media we are constantly subjected to these, for many, unattainable standards of beauty. “Healthy Eating Index and Obesity.”, Corrada, M M. “Association of Body Mass Index and Weight Change with All-Cause Mortality in the Elderly.”, Drenowatz, C. “Differences in Correlates of Energy Balance in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Adults.”, McGee DL. And so on. Exploring the Gendered Nature of Weight Bias.”, (17) Grossman, R. F. “Countering a weight crisis.”, (18) Cossrow, N. H., Jeffrey, R. W., & McGuire, M. T. “Understanding Weight stigmatization: A focus group study.”, (19) Hebl, M. R., Mannix, L. M. “The weight of obesity in evaluating others: A mere proximity effect.”, (20) Roehling, M. V. “Weight-based discrimination in employment: Psychological and legal aspects.”, (21) Wade, T. J., DiMaria, C. “Weight halo effects: Individual differences in perceived life success as a function of women’s race and weight.”, (22) Theran, E. E. “Free to be arbitrary and capricious: Weight-based discrimination and the logic of American anti-discrimination law.”, (23) Drogosz, Lisa M., Levy, Paul E. “Another Look at the Effects of Appearance, Gender, and Job Type on Performance-Based Decisions.”, (24) Riniolo, Todd C. et al., “Hot or Not: Do Professors Perceived as Physically Attractive Receive Higher Student Evaluations?”, (25) Cash, Thomas F., Kilcullen, Robert N. , “The Aye of the Beholder: Susceptibility to Sexism and Beautyism in the Evaluation of Managerial Applicants.”, (26) Alan Feingold, “Good-Looking People Are Not What We Think.”, (27) Toledano, Enbar, et al. “Understanding self-directed stigma: Development of the weight bias Internalization scale.”, Puhl RM, Schwartz M, Brownell KD. Think about the different messages you get about food. In our internal Diversity & Inclusivity workshops, we’ve highlighted the different ways discrimination manifests in the workplace and what we can do to combat and take responsibility for our own biases. Often this discrimination is unconscious; we don’t even know we’re doing it, because societal belief systems like racism, classism, ableism, heteronormativity and ageism are learned and internalized from such an early age. “Competent Yet Out in the Cold: Shifting Criteria for Hiring Reflect Backlash Toward Agentic Women.”, Rogge, M. M., Greenwald, M., Golden, A. I Know Ron Jeremy. x��WYoE~�_1o�H�����-�;���x0��A�>�d~=�st��Nbl9�麾:��PiX��;η+]������**�z���w��.VZ���*LAE[4���ۮ���Z�S��&}�?ʯ����6�J�j���>hZ��Gm}Ԁr�"�?���TVk������q����u7H������*j�)�����|����Vy>����Q�@���~��� Implicit bias may be based on any number of characteristics, ranging from race, age, social group, or appearance. The only reference to appearance is discrimination based on disability. “Stigma in Practice: Barriers to Health for Fat Women.”, (37) Rudolph, Cort W., et al. Now, this is not just with respect to the external appearance but an … Fat women also earn significantly less than their non-fat peers. There is some evidence of bias against fat men in the workplace. How does diet culture relate to your personal and professional life? It’s no wonder more women than men end up unhappy with their normal, healthy bodies (as I will discuss in a later post, weight has limited relevance to health) and thus turn to actions such as restrictive dieting and eating disorders (13). As such, I benefit from a lot of privilege. Regardless of gender, “attractive” individuals are generally viewed as being more intelligent, likable, honest, and sensitive than their peers (26, 27). There has undoubtedly been a growing trend toward the acceptance of formerly-taboo physical expression. Those are the ones you might suspect. “Ways of coping with obesity stigma: Review and conceptual Analysis.”, John M. Kang, “Deconstructing the Ideology of White Aesthetics”, Askegaard, Søren. We prize restriction, excessive exercise, and anything considered to be a form of “self-control.” Between food, physical activity, and lifestyle choices, diet culture quantifies our moral worth. Caryl Rivers, the co-author of a recent book on gender bias titled “The New Soft War on Women,” identifies 13 subtle ways women are still treated differently at work. “Is Fat a Feminist Issue? Future posts will discuss how we can change our perceptions of the intersections between weight, size, and health and what changes we can make as individuals and as a company to combat these biases in the immediate future. D&I initiatives can and should move beyond the law by creating new, far-reaching definitions of acceptable and unacceptable behavior and putting corresponding policies into action. While a novel concept, this issue is becoming increasingly relevant in modern employment. This article focuses on appearance and attractiveness discrimination in the American workplace. “The Looking-Glass Ceiling: Appearance- Based Discrimination in the Workplace.”, (28) Spettigue, Wendy, and Katherine A Henderson. Fitness trackers like Fitbit count your steps and incentivize excessive exercise by comparing you to your peers; Soylent is a popular “meal replacement” created to increase efficiency by removing the “time waste” of eating; the gig economy and the tech products that facilitate it actively celebrate working yourself to death, glorifying cups of coffee over hours of sleep. The effects of this internalization are so profound and largely uncontested that one study found that weight-based employment discrimination is more prevalent than discrimination based on religion, disability, or sexual orientation (1), which have received much more attention and legislative action. Not only that, but these biases are incredibly prevalent and have profound negative effects on people’s lives and careers. “The Looking-Glass Ceiling: Appearance- Based Discrimination in the Workplace.”, Spettigue, Wendy, and Katherine A Henderson. I understand that BMI is a problematic tool for categorization, but it’s one of the most commonly used metrics in studies on this topic. To get to a future workplace where diversity is the norm, we need to acknowledge how susceptible we are to unconscious bias (despite our best intentions) and make it a practice to continuously question the thinking behind our decision making to build awareness of how and when bias is sneaking in to the process. “Obesity, Stigma, and Civilized Oppression.”, (40) Zakrzewski, Karen. “Obesity Discrimination in the Recruitment Process: ‘You’re Not Hired!’”, (3) Pearl, Rebecca L, et al. However, it is limited to men with especially high BMIs, and even then only occurs sporadically. “Implicit anti-fat bias among health professionals: Is anyone immune?”, (10) Puhl, R., Brownell, K. D. (2003). Clearly, weight and appearance discrimination exist in the workplace. This so-called “halo effect” is pervasive throughout our society, and the workplace is no different. “A meta-analysis of empirical studies of weight-based bias in the workplace.”, (38) Phelan, Julie E., Moss-Racusin, Corinne A. , Rudman, Laurie A. “Impact of perceived consensus on stereotypes about obese people: A new approach for reducing bias.”, Crandall CS. That Means I Know an Accused Rapist. “Impact of perceived consensus on stereotypes about obese people: A new approach for reducing bias.”, (6) Cramer P, Steinwert T. “This is good, fat is bad: How early does it begin?”, (7) Crandall CS. It is, of course, not feasible to consider appearance guidelines as a whole a violation of personal liberties. Fat women are targets of weight discrimination in nearly all areas of life, including interpersonal relationships, education, employment, and health care (6, 7, 8, 9, 39).

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